top of page

TEXTILE DICTIONARY

Anker top

A

Anti-Pilling

Refers to the fibers of fleece, which are of such high quality that they do not form nubs. Lint or fluff are fibers that have come loose from yarns of woven or knitted fabrics. They either fall off, get caught loosely in the fabric, or collect on the surface of the fabric. With wool fibers, this fuzz often becomes matted on the surface of the fabric, forming "nodules". The phenomenon of pilling is called pilling.

Anti-Pilling Finish

Subsequent treatment of fabrics made of synthetics to prevent small fiber knots from being scraped off by applying film-binding substances that cause a rougher fiber surface and thus reduce the fiber's ability to slide, or by spraying with a surface-acting solvent, causing the fiber ends to bend like hairpins and form a fine network.

Application

An appliqué is an ornament sewn or glued onto fabric.

Atlas

A satin weave gives a fabric an even, smooth and - depending on the fiber material used - also a very shiny surface, which is why the atlas is also called satin. In warp atlas there are more warp threads than weft threads on the upper side of the fabric, which makes the fabric appear structureless. In the shot atlas, the relationship is reversed.

Azo dyes

The most important group of synthetically produced organic dyes (approx. 50%), which result from the post-treatment of diazonium salts with naphthols, phenols and amines. They can be used without any problems both in dyeing and in fabric printing and offer a large variety of shades with a wide range of possible applications. Individual azo dyes are approved for food and cosmetics. Their manufacture is simple. However, some components (starting products such as benzidine and dichlorobenzidine) are considered carcinogenic. Benzidine-containing azo dyes have not been used by most paint manufacturers for more than 20 years. (Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certificate)

B

Baby Rib

Baby Rib comes from English and stands for a ribbed knitted fabric made from two-ply yarns. Fine rib is very durable and extremely stretchy, which is why it is often used for baby linen.​

Brushed

A manufacturing process in which rotating brushes lift the fabric slightly to give it a softer feel.

Brushed Cotton

In order to make the surface of a textile more absorbent and at the same time increase its thermal insulation capacity, the smooth surface of the fabric must be transformed into a hairy structure. By means of special barbs, fiber ends are pulled out of a finished piece of fabric on the surface, which when a certain number is reached produce the well-known flannel effect.

C

Canvas

Originally a hemp fabric. The name is derived from cannabis (lat. hemp). Today it is the name for a wide-meshed, lattice-like, usually heavily finished cotton fabric. Designation also as grid linen.

Carded Cotton

In order to break up the unordered tufts of raw cotton and at the same time to remove impurities (seed pods, leaf remains, etc.), the fiber tufts in a tangled position are pre-combed using a card – a special spinning machine. The result is a non-woven fabric, also known as batting. This fleece is used to prepare for the subsequent spinning process.

Circular Knit Cotton

Is a manufacturing process in which cotton yarns are processed into a tube on a special circular knitting machine. The knitting needles are arranged in a circle so that they produce an endless, round knitted fabric. This has the advantage that no side seams are necessary when making a T-shirt.

Clan Check

Worsted fabric in equilateral twill weave. Light and dark threads (often tone-on-tone) alternate in warp and weft, resulting in stripes and checks that group into broader stripes and checks (overchecks). Clancheck is a traditional pattern for shirts and outerwear such as suits. Another contrasting overcheck runs over a fine checked pattern. The contrasts can be chosen to different degrees, the stronger the sportier the occasion or use. Basically, a Prince of Wales check pattern is more suitable for daywear than for the evening festive appearance.

Cramps

A processing of textiles in which a shrinking process is deliberately brought about in order to avoid a later change in shape. For this purpose, the textiles are subjected to a specific wash cycle and are intended to shrink. A well-known, protected and patented shrinkage process is Sanfor. This guarantees that the textile will not shrink by more than 1% later.

Cretonne

A coarser plain weave cotton base fabric with a dull look and a clean, relatively hard handle. Raw, bleached, dyed or printed, this material can be used in many different ways.

Cordura

Polyamide fibers are cut, spun and woven to produce Cordura. This makes it significantly more tear-resistant than nylon. Cordura is used in the production of highly stressed textiles such as protective clothing, bags, backpacks, etc. used.

Cotton

A cellulose fiber (building block of the cell walls of plants and thus their structural substance), seed hair of a mallow-like subtropical perennial plant that has been known for almost 5000 years. This grows up to 3 m high and is a shrub-like plant that, except in India, has to be replanted every year. Only three cultivars are of commercial importance: Gossypium herbaceum, of little value and short-stapled, from China, India and Pakistan. Gossypium hirsutum is the most important species in terms of volume. It is cultivated in America, but also in the CIS countries, Turkey, Pakistan and Brazil. Gossypium barbadense from the USA, South America, Egypt, Sudan and the CIS countries is a particularly long-staple (up to 50 mm) fibre. Special climatic conditions apply to the cultivation and extraction of cotton. During growth, the plant needs plenty of rainfall (about 5 months) and absolute drought during ripening and harvesting. These conditions do not exist in all cultivation areas, which is why artificial irrigation is often used there, which can lead to salinization of the soil, which in turn requires the use of chemicals.

Cotton piqué (fine/coarse)

Basically, piqué means a relief-like pattern. Knitwear: Knitted piqué is a dense, lightly structured, sweat-absorbing fabric quality made of pure cotton that is hardly susceptible to laddering. The material is mostly used for polo shirts. Fabric: A real piqué fabric is also known as a quilted fabric because it has a fine top fabric and a coarser bottom fabric. A special binding makes the fabric appear raised on the upper side - just like quilted.

 

D

Denim

A durable cotton fabric used primarily for denim fashion. The ready-made garments get their fashionable look through different washing processes (e.g. stone-washed). The strength of the fabric is indicated by the weight in ounces.

Detergent For Delicates

A special detergent for textiles that are particularly sensitive to fibers and colours; they are used in the temperature range from 30 to 40°C. They contain no optical brighteners or added bleach.

Discharge Print

The discharge print is a completely normal screen print and is used to print dark-colored cotton textiles in multiple colors. This type of printing only works on reactive-dyed cotton. The special printing ink contains an agent that destroys the color with which the cotton is dyed when exposed to steam. The remaining light color of the raw cotton is much easier to print with a new color. The results are excellently opaque, light print motifs that do not block the fibers and cannot even be damaged by an iron.

Dri Release®

Dri-Release is formed from a patented micro-blend yarn that contains a small percentage of cotton. With this material, the comfort of cotton is achieved, coupled with the advantages of synthetic fibers. The material ensures fast sweat absorption, dries 4 times faster than cotton, has a soft, natural feel, is pill-resistant, authentic in colour and keeps its shape.

Drill

Strong, woven cotton fabric, similar to denim, usually khaki in colour. Due to its strength, it is often used for workwear and children's clothing.

 

Doming

Domings are usually digitally printed on paper or foil. The unique 3D effect is created by the separately applied layer of resin that forms the transparent "dome". Domings impress with a very high-quality look and offer maximum flexibility. The domings we use are sufficiently water and UV resistant in connection with bags​
 

Dyeing

In principle, dyeing can take place at any stage of processing. For items that are produced in large quantities, the cheaper flake dye is usually used. The dye draws evenly from the dyebath onto the goods to be dyed and is bound by it.

 

E

Embroidery Card

In the field of machine embroidery, the created embroidery program is called an embroidery card. The name comes from the punch cards used to control the machine.

Enzymatically Treated Cotton

Enzymes are organism-derived macro-molecules hat catalyse specific chemical reactions. In this regard, certain types of enzymes can be exploited to break down the material-layers that are important for the weaving process after textile production. Another instance is the production different handles on cotton fabrics via enzymes (e.g. for the stonewashed effect). Lastly, for articles that are dyed with a special dye, enzymes can be used partially degrade the dye, resulting in new color effects.

F

Fabric

Woven fabrics are created by two sets of threads crossing at right angles (warp and weft).

Film

Films for screen printing are colour-separated, positive, clear printing foils with corresponding fiducials. A film must be created for each color to be printed. The corresponding sieve is then exposed to high intesity UV-irradiation with the film attached to it and subsequently washed out, resulting in the printing template.

Fleece

It is mostly used in sports and leisure fashion, where functionality is particularly important. In winter as a dense, cuddly warm fleece quality, in summer in a noticeably lighter knit. But always hard-wearing and easy to care for, because the polyester fiber itself - in contrast to natural fibers - hardly absorbs any moisture.

Freshguard

A Freshguard treatment embedded in the fiber eliminates almost all odours. The clothes do not smell and feel fresh. Freshguard stays in place for over 50 washes. It also maintains the natural protective balance of the skin.

French Terry

The knitted version of terry goods. Soft pile (short loop fabric) on the inside, brushed fabric on the outside.

Terry

A loop fabric, single or double sided, depending on intended use. In decorative fabrics, loops are only formed on the right side of the fabric to save material. The double loop is chosen for qualities that show both sides of the fabric, e.g. B. porters. They can be jacquard and dobby patterned, plain colored or printed. If the loop heads are cut open at the top, velor fabric is created.

G

Grammage

The basis weight of paper or fabrics in g/sqm.

Grid

The grid ruling or grid describes the number of grid lines within a given dimension, e.g. B. per centimeter or inch. A 54 grid therefore has 54 grid lines per centimeter or inch. Values between 54 and 80 lines per centimeter are common in offset printing.

H

Heavy Weight Cotton

Heavy cotton usually refers to fabrics that have a basis weight of more than 260g/m² and are used in workwear for "heavy" applications, i.e. in the outdoor area and construction.

I

Interlock

Interlock is a knit that looks the same on both sides. It is created by combining two ribbed fabrics with a right/left stitch pattern. The two fine rib fabrics are connected by sliding them into each other, which means that only knit stitches can be seen on both sides. The left stitches, on the other hand, are on the inside of the knitted fabric. This manufacturing technique results in a warming, stretchy, smooth fabric surface that is almost impossible to run. High-quality underwear and T-shirts are made from interlock.

J

Jersey

A slightly stretchy, wonderfully soft knit with a slight rib structure. Due to its high elasticity, it ensures an optimal fit and perfect wearing comfort. Initially only used for underwear, jersey is very popular in feminine women's fashion due to its soft, adaptable structure.

Jute

Similar to hemp, jute is a dicotyledonous plant (lat. Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius), from whose stalk the jute fiber is obtained. These are bundle fibers composed of relatively short elementary fibers, which are about 1.5 to 2 meters long and have to be torn before spinning. When mature, the elementary fibers are invariably heavily lignified. Before spinning, the fiber undergoes a special treatment to make it soft and supple. Use of coarse yarns for mostly plain weave, coarse fabrics for packaging materials, upholstery work, wall coverings (bursting) and base fabric for tufted carpets, linoleum, etc. (cotton bags are often incorrectly referred to as jute bags!).

K

Knitted Fabric

Knitted fabrics are knitted goods that are created by interlacing parallel, vertical threads to form meshes. A large number of needles form a large number of stitches side by side at the same time. Knitted goods have a high stability against mechanical influences and do not run. They have a good ability to absorb sweat, but only limited stretchability.​

L

Linen

Fiber obtained from the stalk of flax. Linen is characterized by its extraordinary strength. It's cool feel, smoothness, slight sheen and low heat retention make linen the ideal fiber for high-quality summer clothing. The creases that appear when you wear them emphasize the casual, elegant character (linen bags are also often incorrectly referred to as cotton bags!).​

Lycra

The protected name for high-quality elastane fiber from DuPont. It gives garments permanent elasticity, and a perfect fit.

M

Mercerized Cotton

In order to give cotton textiles a particularly elegant sheen and better absorbency for dyes, they are additionally mercerised after bleaching. To do this, the fabric is treated in such a way that the original bean-shaped fiber diameter swells and  adapts a round shape. This reflects the light evenly and makes the handle pleasantly soft.

Microfiber

A modern high-tech fibre, mostly made of polyester. Millions of micro-fine fibers form a fabric through which wind and rain have difficulty penetrating, but vaporous body moisture can evaporate easily.

Micropolyester (in contrast to "normal" polyester)

Polyester microfibers are ultra-fine endless and spun yarns whose individual filaments (i.e. individual fibers) are finer than 1.0 dtex (decitex). This means that 10,000 meters of yarn (and more) only weighs one gram. The lightweights ensure supple fabrics with a soft, flowing drape. They are used, for example, for washable imitation leather (Alcantara) or climate fabrics.

Microfleece

Pile knit fabric with a breathable function. Extraordinarily light, windproof and water-repellent. It ensures that body moisture is quickly absorbed and then passes it on to the outside. This keeps the skin warm and dry. It is used in the clothing industry and is an ideal addition to underwear made of microfleece outerwear with a climate membrane in the colder seasons.

N

Nylon

A particularly fine manufacturable polymer fiber made of polyamide. It was invented by W.H. Carothers. It has been an integral part of the fashion world since the 1950s. No wonder... Nylon is particularly easy to care for, hard-wearing, does not crease and dries quickly. This makes nylon the ideal material for both sporty and elegant clothing.

O

Ökotex Standard

Product-related system for testing textiles for their human-ecological harmlessness. Here it is checked that the limit values for harmful substances in textiles are not exceeded (heavy metals, pesticide residues, AZO dyes, formaldehyde). The textiles that pass this test receive the Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certificate.

Organic Cotton

Cotton from controlled organic cultivation.

P

Panama

The Panama is a multi-thread plain weave in which several (usually 2) warp and weft threads are tied together alternately. This creates a porous fabric with a cube look.

Pilot / Dual Pilot

The pilot, also known as mole skin, is a strong cotton fabric that is roughened on the left side and has a weft satin weave, but the right side of the fabric is smooth. Pilot fabrics are often used for workwear.

Pique

A lightweight fabric with a waffle or grainy finish. This feels particularly light and comfortable on the skin. The structure of piqué makes it particularly absorbent. Due to these positive properties, woven piqué is particularly popular for sporty shirts and blouses and in the area of home textiles for towels and sauna towels. Knitted piqué is the typical material for classic polo shirts.

Piece Dyed

Piece dyeing is performed on a manufactured product. This can be both a piece of textile and a ready-made article. After its completion, it is dyed in one piece in special machines. Piece dyeing offers a major advantage: high flexibility. Any quantity in any color can be made on demand in a short time. As a rule, a limited fastness to washing is given as a disadvantage.

Plain Weave

In plain weave, the weft thread lies alternately above and below a warp thread. This gives the fabric the same look and grainy texture on the top and bottom. The plain weave is the simplest and at the same time the most stable weave.

Polyester

A fully synthetic polymer fiber. It is manufactured in a wide range of structures and material thicknesses and is often mixed with other fibers. Polyester dries particularly quickly and is shrink- and shape-retaining. It is therefore ideal for sportswear, swimwear, dresses, suits and lingerie, as well as ties and scarves.

Polypropylene

This plastic has a significantly higher rigidity, hardness and strength than polyethylene. Polypropylene, also known as PP for short, is resistant to almost all organic solvents and fats as well as most acids and alkalis. It is odorless and skin-friendly and well suited for applications in the food sector.

Poplin

A particularly dense fabric made from fine cotton, wool or synthetic fiber yarns. The finely ribbed structure and the fine sheen are typical of poplin. Poplin is preferably processed into sporty shirts or blouses and coats.

R

Reactive Dyes

In order to print textiles using the so-called "discharge process", the fabrics must be reactively dyed. The fibers form a chemical bond when dyed. Fixing takes place with supply of heat in the presence of alkaline solutions. However, the colorations, which are popular because of the purity of the nuances, are relatively expensive.

Rib

Characterized by high stretchability with a lower material density than interlock. Is ideal for body-hugging, inexpensive shirts. The most common is the 1:1 rib, ie the stitches are knitted alternately on the left and right. With the 2:2 Ribb you have two right and two left rows of machines alternating. Ribb is elastic and is therefore often processed into cuffs and neckline edges.​

Ribbed Cotton or Cotton Rib

Rib fabrics are knitted fabrics in which one or more knit stitches alternate in double crochet with the same or different number of purl stitches on one side of the fabric (like the cuffs on sweatshirts). Rib goods are particularly stretchy.

Ring-spun Cotton

Ring-spun yarns are valuable yarns. Only certain fiber qualities (and fiber lengths) can be processed, from which high yarn counts can be produced. In the first step, the individual cotton fibers are brought into a parallel position in a combing process and combined to form a roving. This is processed into a fine yarn by repeated stretching and twisting on the ring spinning machine. The twisting is done by a runner sliding on a ring around the spindle.

S

Sanforized

A processing of textiles in which a shrinking process is deliberately brought about in order to avoid a later change in shape. For this purpose, the textiles are subjected to a specific wash cycle and are intended to shrink. A well-known, protected and patented shrinkage process is Sanfor. This guarantees that the textile will not shrink by more than 1% later.

Scotchlite

3M Scotchlite consists of many microscopic, reflective glass beads. The safety of the wearer at night is significantly increased as the reflective material is visible over a long distance of 160m. It can be used visually in various forms of emblems or narrow decorative stripes.

Semi-Combed Cotton

In the semi-worsted yarn spinning mill, the work of combing and smoothing the slivers before the spinning process is no longer necessary. As a result, the finished yarn also consists of long, medium-length and short fibers. Therefore, semi-worsted yarn is not as strong or even.

Separation

Separation printing can be found in the textile sector for printing dark articles. Computer calculations are used to "separate" up to 13 real colors from an image that is printed in normal offset printing from the 4-color set. This means that true-color image reproduction is also possible on textiles.

Single Jersey

One of the most popular fashion qualities ever since the invention of the T-shirt. Finely knitted, it follows every movement, is breathable thanks to its fine mesh structure and is particularly soft on the skin. All of these positive properties make single jersey the ideal material for shirts, underwear, nightwear, as well as sportswear and children's clothing.

(Single/Stretch) Jersey

Cotton jersey is a knitted fabric with a matt surface that is clearly different from the underside. It is formed from a mesh type. Jersey fabrics are characterized by a soft, full feel and good transverse strength.

Soft Shell

Three-layer softshell loop fabric consists of 93% polyester with 7% elastane on the outside, a breathable TPU membrane in the middle layer and microfleece on the inside for extra warmth. This elastic fabric guarantees the highest possible wearing comfort due to its balanced harmony of wind resistance, breathability and absolute water resistance. The hard-wearing outer fabric offers protection against external influences and is particularly suitable for the colder seasons and strenuous sports activities. Body heat is largely retained while body moisture is quickly wicked away from the skin, keeping the wearer warm and dry.​

Spandex

A synthetic elastic fiber primarily used to improve fit and comfort. Elastane is extremely stretchy, easy to care for and keeps its shape. An elastane content of 3 to 7% is usual for trousers and skirts. A material mix with up to 30% elastane is usually used for body-hugging stretch fashion and above all for high-quality swimwear and lingerie. The following applies: the higher the elastane content, the more perfectly the model adapts to the body.

(Super) Combed Cotton / Pure Worsted Cotton

The term worsted yarn originally comes from wool production. The slivers, to which the fibers are combined before the spinning process, go through an additional combing process. This combs out short fibres, brings the long fibers into a high degree of parallelism and smoothes the sliver, which enables very fine spinning. Worsted fabrics are mainly used for outerwear because they create a clear, smooth fabric appearance.​

T

Taslan

Consists of textured polyamide fibers. Originally, it is a smooth fiber that is permanently crimped with the help of hot air. Due to the modified fiber structure, Taslan fabrics are more abrasion-resistant and have a more textile feel than conventional polyamide fabrics. You often see an additional number such as 420D Taslan - this information describes the thread diameter and thus the thickness of the processed Taslan threads.

Teflon

The name Teflon goes back to the basic substance of the material (tetrafluoroethylene), which is shortened to Te-fl-on. Teflon is one of the most durable stain and dirt protective products available today. By equipping a product with Teflon, the surface tension is significantly increased so that liquids with the same or higher surface tension roll off. In addition, products equipped with Teflon are very easy to care for and crease-free. Due to its great properties, Teflon has proven itself, especially in the outdoor area.

Tencel

A pulp obtained from eucalyptus trees. A silky yet very durable natural fiber.

Twill

This is what a particularly dense, two-threaded twill fabric is called. Twill is mostly made from cotton. Due to the firm yet fine weave, it is often used for durable and light summer clothing in jeans style. Characteristics of the twill weave are diagonal binding lines (ridges) in the fabric. Depending on the body type, they appear stronger or weaker. A typical fabric for a twill weave is the classic jeans fabric, in which a clear diagonal runs across the textile.

U

Underlay

When printing on dark textiles, an underlay (color layer) may be necessary, depending on the motif to be printed, so that the colors do not lose their brilliance.

V

Viscose

A chemical fiber with a soft feel absorbs moisture very well.

Y

Yarn Dyed

If requirements are placed on an article with regard to its color and wash fastness, yarns are often used that are dyed before weaving or knitting. Immediately after spinning, they are evenly dyed on spools in special machines and only then processed into a surface.

0-9

1x1 rib

In the 1x1 rib, a right and a left stitch alternate. This creates a flexible fabric that has the same appearance on both sides.

Anker a
Anker B
Anker C
Anker D
Anker E
Anker F
Anker G
Anker H
Anker I
Anker J
Anker K
Anker L
Anker M
Anker N
Anker O
Anker P
Anker R
Anker S
Anker T
Anker U
Anker V
Anker 0-9
bottom of page